Tag Archives: Eastern Shore

Book Review: ‘Delaware Beer: The Story of Brewing in the First State’

In 2014, local author and journalist Tony Russo explored the history of brewing on Maryland’s Eastern Shore in Eastern Shore Beer: The Heady History of Chesapeake Brewing. Now he’s back with what is not so much a sequel as a companion volume, Delaware Beer: The Story of Brewing in the First State, published by the History Press.

Outsiders might expect such a book to be all about Dogfish Head, the state’s largest and best-known brewery and the thirteenth largest craft brewery in the nation. But Delaware Beer is, instead, the story of brewing in Delaware, and Dogfish Head is only one (important!) part of that story.

Russo covers the colonial era in a few pages, briefly summarizing the activities of the Dutch and the Swedes along the Delaware River, and referring interested readers to the more in-depth Delaware Brewing by John Medkeff, Jr. Readers might chuckle over the written request of Johan Classon Risingh, governor of New Sweden, for a wife who could make malt and brew ale, in addition to keeping up with other chores. The first chapter covers the 19th and early 20th centuries as well, when there was far more homebrewing and cidermaking going on than commercial brewing, although Delaware’s very own Diamond State Brewery, located in Wilmington, had its roots in the Nebeker brewery founded in 1859, and produced beer of one kind or another (including so-called “near beer” during the Prohibition era) until it closed in 1955.Delaware Beer by Tony Russo

Delaware Beer – at least the part of the story that most readers are probably most interested in – begins in earnest with the founding of Dogfish Head and Stewart’s Brewing Company in 1995. Russo credits their founders, Sam Calagione and Al Stewart, respectively, with setting “the standard for the way beer would be done in Delaware right from the start.” By focusing on quality rather than quantity, and growing sustainably, both survived the craft beer bust of the late 90’s. In addition to crafting innovative beers, Calagione crafted legislation that chipped away at the remnants of Prohibition, and arguably paved the way for the numerous breweries that have sprung up during the last two decades, not only in Delaware, but throughout the nation.

Following a rather extensive examination of Dogfish Head and Stewart’s, focusing particularly on their roles as pioneers in Delaware craft brewing, Russo takes readers on a tour of the breweries currently operating throughout the state, most of which opened during the last decade. Iron Hill, Fordham and Dominion, Blue Earl, 16 Mile, 3rd Wave, Mispillion and others – all have unique stories, as well as unique strategies for succeeding in an increasingly crowded market. However, these stories are presented as parts of a greater story; the individual breweries are not so much separate subjects as they are characters interacting in a plot that continues to unfold.

Delaware Beer is an entertaining, informative read for craft beer fans, but it’s also an important chronicle of an emerging industry. It offers a rare look into the inner workings of numerous competitors (which, admirably, seem to regard themselves more as independent partners) as they evolve from shaky start-ups into stable, young companies. Whatever the future may hold for craft beer – whether the boom gives way to another bust, or the existing breweries continue to prosper – Tony Russo has performed a vital, valuable task in documenting the local movement’s early years.

– Chris Slavens

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Using Maryland’s Plats.net to research colonial Sussex

A couple of weeks ago a fellow from the lower Eastern Shore contacted me and casually mentioned that I live in what was once Old Somerset before William Penn stole it, and went on to call the Pennsylvania founder a “thieving bastard.” He was alluding to the ancient boundary dispute which resulted in the running of the Transpeninsular Line and the Mason-Dixon Line, giving a substantial portion of Maryland’s Eastern Shore to Pennsylvania — wrongly, in the opinion of some. I tend to share this opinion.

The fact that western and lower Sussex County, Delaware, used to be part of Somerset or Worcester County, Maryland, depending on the time period, is a source of confusion for many researchers, particularly those who are searching for the locations of early settlements. But it doesn’t have to be. In fact, Maryland land records are arguably easier to access than those of Delaware.

Plats.net, hosted by the State of Maryland, is an incredibly useful resource for anyone researching the early history of, say, Seaford, Laurel, Gumboro, Selbyville, etc. You can find a Beginners Guide here, which covers the basics, but I’ve learned a couple of tricks to get the most out of the site.

Typically, after selecting a county (either Somerset or Worcester for the Broad Creek area, for example) I do an Advanced Search and enter part of a name — of an individual or a tract of land — in the Description box, then change the the sort order from the default setting, Date Descending, to Date Ascending, so that the oldest records will be listed first. There’s a reason I enter part of a name rather than the entire name. Spellings of even simple names vary — i.e., Stephens vs. Stevens — so it can be helpful to search for the part of the name that is most likely to be spelled consistently. For example, “dolb” rather than Dolby or Dolbee will yield results for both. Or “collin” will pull up records for Collins as well as Collings, an early spelling of the name. Sometimes the old spellings are nearly unrecognizable; for example, Brazier rather than Brasure — yet a search for “bra” would cover both.

Tract names are also subject to spelling variations, i.e., Forrest vs. Forest, Hogg vs. Hog, Lott vs. Lot, etc. Sometimes you have to be creative.

Once you’ve pulled up a particular record, there is usually no need to struggle to read the entire text. All have the same basic format. You can usually skip down to the description of the tract, which will read, “Beginning at a markd white oke on ye south side of Broad Creek…” or something similar. Typically, the only place-names to appear in the descriptions are those of waterways — and more often than not, the names of smaller waterways are obsolete and don’t appear on any map — but sometimes specific neighbors, roads, and even towns will be referenced. There will also be a diagram of the tract, but — frustratingly — this will almost never include any landmarks other than the trees used as markers.

50-acre tract "Priveledge" surveyed for George "Tomson" in 1743, probably in today's Gumboro

50-acre tract “Priveledge” surveyed for George “Tomson” in 1743, probably in today’s Gumboro

Despite the vague descriptions, these records can be used to determine which neighborhood a particular plantation was located in. Later records, even Delaware deeds, might refer to the tract by name and provide more details. For example, a large tract along Broad Creek, patented to Joseph Collins in 1762 and named Collins Industry, was referred to in dozens of deeds in the following decades as the tract was gradually divided into many smaller parcels.

I’ve identified a couple of the old creek names in the Broad Creek area, like Wimbesoccom Creek (today’s Gray’s Branch), and only recently decided that the frequently referenced Bald Cypress Branch probably ran through Trussum Pond rather than Trap Pond (neither of which was known as such during the colonial era). This is a sort of ongoing back-burner project.

– Chris Slavens

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Minor update

When I created this blog a couple of years ago, I chose Peninsula Roots as a temporary name, and didn’t bother to register a domain name, expecting it to change. It never did, so I finally got around to registering peninsularoots.com, which looks a bit nicer than the old peninsularoots.wordpress.com. Links to the old address will still work, however.

I’ve also added links to a couple of other Delmarva history blogs, but the Links and Resources pages remain works in progress.

– Chris Slavens

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Blackfoot Town (Dagsboro) in colonial primary sources

The early history of the town of Dagsboro, located in lower Sussex County just off Route 113, is a matter of controversy and speculation, as anyone who has ever googled the subject is aware. Scharf’s History of Delaware, published in 1888, states that the town was known as Blackfoot Town before it was renamed Dagsbury in memory of General John Dagworthy, and subsequent sources have repeated the information. However, specifics concerning the origins of the town and its unusual name are frustratingly elusive, inspiring theories about settlers slogging through black mud, or even Blackfoot Indians.

The purpose of this post is not to comment on those theories, but simply to offer some early primary source references to Blackfoot Town. They’re not necessarily the earliest; just the earliest I’ve stumbled upon. Since the name doesn’t appear on any map, the best place to start is colonial land records for Worcester County.

The description of Thomas Dazey’s 62-acre tract named Jacob’s Neglect, surveyed in 1748, states that the boundaries began “at a marked White Oak standing on the North side of the County Road that leads to blackfoot Town…” This tract was patented to Dazey (or Dasey, presumably one of the forerunners of the local Daisey clan) in 1755. According to Scharf, Thomas Dasey lived in Baltimore Hundred. I’m unsure about the location of the county road; possibilities include roads from Blackfoot Town to Cedar Neck, the Sound, or St. Martin’s River and points south.

Survey for Thomas Dazey, 1748

When the surveyor John Watson traveled to Fenwick’s Island in December 1750 to begin surveying and marking the Transpeninsular Line, he mentioned in his journal that the party stopped at Blackfoot Town and”lodged some at one Carters an Inkeeper & one Reads a private House.” He described the territory between “Lewis” and Blackfoot as “Barren Grounds,” and estimated that the towns were about twenty-two miles apart; a very accurate estimate which proves that the town was, in fact, located on or very near the site of Dagsboro.

Work on the line was suspended nearly a month later due to inclement weather. The party made their way from Romley Marsh across the Head of Sound, then crossed Black Foot Creek on a makeshift bridge of two logs while the horses swam across. They reached Blackfoot Town in the early afternoon, and stayed at Joseph Carter’s inn again. Black Foot Creek was probably an early or alternate name for Pepper’s Creek or, less likely, Herring Branch, although both names were already in use at that time. Throughout his brief entries, Watson used the spellings: Blackfoot Town, Black foot Town, Blackfoot, and Black foot. I include them all for the sake of search engines.

When a 265-acre tract named Red Oak Ridge (not to be confused with unrelated tracts sharing the same name) was resurveyed for Uriah Brookfield in 1756, the first boundary marker was described as “standing on a ridge on the southeast side of the Cyprus Swamp Road about five miles above Blackfoot Town back in the woods & about a mile to the eastward of a cyprus swamp called the Green Swamp…”

Another reference appears in the description of a 100-acre tract named Waples Luck, surveyed for Paul Waples in 1757. Although the wording is a bit confusing, “a County Road leading from Snow Hill to Lewis Town” and “a place called blackfoot Town” are mentioned. This tract may have been adjacent to the town, which might explain the number of Waples households in and around Dagsborough in 1868, according to the Pomeroy & Beers Atlas. Other tracts patented to Paul Waples mention Pepper’s Creek. Paul was the son of Peter Waples, who settled on the north Shore of Indian River (Pennsylvania territory) in the 1690s and ran a ferry across the river. The name Ferry Cove still appears on some modern maps.

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Yet another reference can be found in a survey for Joshua Burton, dated 1760. His tract named Trouble Reviewed was described as “lying and being in [Worcester County] above black foot Town…” and “near the lower end of the Indian Land…” This is almost certainly a reference to the old reservation known as Askekecky (among other spellings) bordered by today’s Indian Town Road, south of Millsboro and northwest of Dagsboro.

Survey for Joshua Burton, 1760

Based on these four sources alone, we can be certain that:

  1. Blackfoot Town, whatever its origins, was established by 1748.
  2. A creek to the south of the town was also named Blackfoot or Black Foot, though it’s hard to say which was named first.
  3. Joseph Carter ran an inn there in the early 1750s, and a man named Read lived nearby.
  4. Paul Waples owned a considerable amount of land near, and possibly in, the town by the late 1750s.

We can probably assume that there were also a couple of mills nearby, and although there’s no record of a house of worship prior to the construction of Prince George’s Chapel between 1755 and 1757, there were Presbyterian and Anglican churches within a somewhat reasonable distance.

The colonial history of this part of Sussex County is murkier than others. Blackfoot Town, and settlements near the Sound and Fenwick’s Island — not to mention the branch of the Sound known as Indian Town Creek — are surely deserving of further research.

– Chris Slavens

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Askeksy and the “Indian River Indians”

By the beginning of the 18th century, the dwindling peninsula Indian tribes had been herded, through a series of wars and peace treaties, into several settlements, some of which were officially recognized and reserved for them by the colonial governments, and some of which were simply located on unclaimed land. One of the latter was the last refuge of a band of Indians – probably Assateagues – who had been forced to move several times, leaving the Buckingham area in eastern Somerset (now Worcester, near Berlin) at an unknown date, and migrating north in search of a new home. They settled at a place called Assawamen, which was probably a tributary of the Sound known as Indian Town Branch (now Dirickson Creek), but moved north again to the south side of Indian River, which was the de facto boundary between Maryland and Pennsylvania at the time. The subject of this article, their final recognized settlement, was in existence by 1705, and was known by several similar names, including Askeksy, Askekesky, Askeckeky, Askekson, Acksquessance, and Askquessence. The Indians themselves, because they had settled near the Indian River (also known as the Baltimore River) , became known as the Indian River Indians. It should be noted that this name referred to this specific band of Indians, although others lived on both sides of the river. Their name for themselves does not appear in any records from the period.

The so-called Indian River Indians first appear in official records dated May 1705, when their chief Robin appeared in Annapolis and signed a peace treaty on behalf of “Queen Wyransconmickonous.” Representatives of the Nanticokes and Choptanks also signed the treaty. Robin went on to tell Governor John Seymour that his people had “Extremly Suffered of Late Years by being disturbed & Expulsed from their several Settlements in Towns,” and were living in a town at the head of Indian River, but were “Continually Threaten’d to be Driven from thence…” He requested that the land on which their settlement was located, as well as one thousand adjacent acres, be reserved for the tribe’s use. The request was approved.

Askecksky

In modern terms, Askeksy was located south of Millsboro between Irons Branch and Route 24. The branch was known as Indian Town Branch or Indian Branch during the 18th century, and clearly matches the southern boundary of the tract. This boundary more or less survives as Indian Town Road (which was known as Injun Town Road for decades and as recently as a few years ago) and a portion of Hickory Hill Road. The location of the northwestern boundary is a bit less clear, but it seems like Route 24 follows it roughly, or was at least laid out in relation to portions of it. The following map shows how modern roads roughly outline the old reservation over three hundred years after it was established.

Approximate location of Askeksy; compare to above survey

Based on descriptions of nearby tracts surveyed for William Burton, as well as modern estimates of the extent of the Pocomoke or Cypress Swamp prior to drainage and timbering efforts, the reservation was probably somewhat swampy, or at least very close to the swamp’s northern edge. The description of a tract named Panter Swamp mentioned a waterhole on or near the west prong of Indian Town Branch. There were still black bears and timber rattlesnakes in the area at the time.

At about the same time that Askeksy was established, most of the Nanticokes moved from their reservation known as Chicacoan Town, near Vienna, to a site on Broad Creek which came to be known as Broad Creek Town. Aside from the fact that their leaders and Robin appeared in Annapolis at the same time, there is little information about their dealings with their new neighbors, just fourteen miles away. Recently I wrote about a so-called horse road which was in existence in 1748, connecting Broad Creek and the head of Indian River; this road may have begun as a trail between the two Indian settlements.

Nanticoke territory, 1742

Though the Indian River Indians aren’t mentioned in official records nearly as often as the Nanticokes, if the Nanticokes’ experiences during this period are any indication, they struggled to preserve their property and way of life as more and more land was cleared and farmed by the English. Sometimes the white farmers interfered with Indian hunters. Perhaps that’s why they joined the Nanticokes, Choptanks, Pocomokes, and visiting Shawnees at a place called Winnasoccum or Wimbesoccom for a secret powwow in June 1742. The tribes planned to massacre the local English settlers and retake the peninsula with the help of the French, who supposedly promised to land on the coast. The plot was discovered and thwarted, several Indians were arrested and interrogated, and in August the leaders of the Nanticokes, Choptanks, Indian River Indians, Pocomokes, and Assateagues signed a new, highly restrictive peace treaty. Tom Hill and Robin (probably the first Robin’s son) were identified as chiefs of the Indian River Indians.

In the years following the suppression of the Winnasoccum Uprising, as the event has been labeled by some, many of the peninsula Indian tribes abandoned their lands and migrated to Pennsylvania. The Indian River Indians had already sold hundreds of acres to local English settlers prior to 1742, and sold the remainder of their reservation to William Burton in 1743. There is no known record of their existence as an organized tribe or band following this sale, and strictly speaking, their fate is unknown. They may have joined the Nanticokes at Broad Creek Town, many of whom moved north in 1744. Perhaps they moved north, too, or perhaps, like some of the Nanticokes, they lingered in the area, intermarrying with whites and/or blacks and producing new generations of mulattoes who gradually adopted English ways and preserved vague traditions about Indian ancestry. If so, it seems likely that some would have joined the multiracial community on the north shore of the Indian River which was in existence as early as the 1840s, and which eventually spawned the Nanticoke Indian Association.

– Chris Slavens

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List of Nanticoke leaders, 1668-1759


The following is an incomplete and imperfect list of Nanticoke leaders in the 17th and 18th centuries. Although relatively little of the tribal hierarchy is known, there seems to have been a hereditary emperor who exercised some degree of authority over the entire Nanticoke territory and those who lived there, including not only the Nanticokes, but also members of other tribes who were somehow his or the tribe’s subjects (e.g., the Wicomisses in 1668). Note that the Maryland authorities negotiated a treaty with the first emperor mentioned, Unnacokasimon, but eventually appointed or removed emperors as they saw fit. Lesser leaders, termed chiefs by the English, exercised authority at each town.

It is assumed that John Smith met an emperor in June of 1608, for his impressive map of the Chesapeake region published in 1612 shows a king’s house or town labeled Kuskarawaok about halfway up the river, but his account of the voyage does not mention an emperor, or any leader for that matter.

Between the 1640s and 1660s, official Maryland records usually describe the Nanticokes as hostile enemies of the province, but offer few details on the tribe.

Unnacokasimon (or Unnacokasinnon, Unnacokasimmon, etc.) was an emperor of the Nanticokes, and is assumed to have lived at Chicacoan Town. His subjects included the Wicomisses (not to be confused with the Wicomicos or Wicomicons). He signed an important peace treaty in 1668. By July 1687, he had died and been succeeded by his brother, Opeter, also known as Ohopperoon. Someone told the English that Unnacokasimon had been poisoned by members of the tribe who opposed the English (and, presumably, Unnacokasimon’s policy towards them), and that the new emperor was a usurper.

Opeter or Ohopperoon was Unnacokasimon’s brother, and became emperor when he died. It’s unclear when this occurred, but official documents penned in the summer of 1687 seem to imply that the transition had occurred recently. Someone told the Maryland authorities that Unnacokasimon had been poisoned by members of the tribe who opposed the English, and that Opeter was a usurper. However, he renewed his brother’s peace treaty shortly thereafter.

Ashquash was a son of Unnacokasimon. He was declared an enemy of the province in 1692, but remained emperor (or was later reinstated). In 1705, Panquash and “Annotoughk” signed a peace treaty on his behalf. In 1713, he left Maryland to live with the Susquehanna Indians.

Panquash was one of the leaders of the Nanticoke in 1698, when the General Assembly established the reservation on Chicacoan Creek. The legislation also mentioned Annatoughquan. Panquash was mentioned as one of the chiefs of the Nanticokes in 1719, and again in 1742. Alternate spellings include Panquas and Pantikas.

Annatoughquan or Anatocom was one of the leaders of the Nanticoke in 1698, when the General Assembly established the reservation on Chicacoan Creek. He was mentioned after Panquas. He and Panquash were still leaders in 1719.

Felton was briefly mentioned in 1698, when the English warned Panquash and “Armaulauquan” (possibly an alternate spelling of Annatoughquan) that they did not recognize his claim to be “Emperor of Nanticoke.”

Tom Coursey was one of three Nanticoke leaders who, in 1713, claimed that the tribe had never received “satisfaction” for the vandalism of a quiacason house six years earlier. He was joined by Panquash and Rossakatum.

Rossakatum or Rassekettham was joined Tom Coursey and Panquash  It is assumed that Laurel’s Rossakatum Branch, a tributary of Broad Creek, was named after him. He might have been associated with the Broad Creek reservation.

Henry Coursey was described as “the Emperor” in the early 1720s. His relationship to Dixon (or John) Coursey, who was a chief of the Nanticokes by 1742, is unclear.

William Asquash, son of Ashquash, was described as “the late Emperor’s son” in 1725. He lived in Chicacoan Town. It’s unclear whether he was also a chief. He may have been related to Abraham and Jemmey Ashquash, who were living in Chicacoan Town in 1742.

King Toby is assumed to have been a leader of the Nanticokes of Broad Creek Town. In 1725, he was one of the “certain Indians belonging to the Town of Broad Creek” who traveled to Dividing Creek and accused John Caldwell, Jr., Patrick Caldwell, and Thomas Caldwell of some kind of abuse. The record identifies the Indians as “King Toby Lolloway and whist,” making it unclear whether Lolloway was the second of three names, or King Toby Lolloway was one name. Previously, an Indian named Lolloway had been assaulted and badly injured. In 1742, the Shawnees took a Nanticoke named Toby up to Conoy Town. Additionally, a Nanticoke named Tom Tobe signed a petition in support of future emperor George Pocatehouse in the late 1750s. It’s unclear whether these men were related to King Toby.

Simon Alsechqueck was one of the chiefs of the Broad Creek Indians. He was involved in the Winnasoccum event in 1742, and was held by the English authorities until he and Captain John, another chief of the Broad Creek Indians, signed a peace treaty. In 1744, Simon and three other Nanticoke leaders requested permission for the tribe to leave Maryland.

Captain John was one of the chiefs of the Broad Creek Indians. He was involved in the Winnasoccum event in 1742, and was held by the English authorities until he and Simon Alsechqueck signed a peace treaty.

John Coursey, also known as Dixon Coursey, was one of the chiefs of the Nanticokes at Chicacoan Creek. He was involved in the Winnasoccum event in 1742, and was held by the English authorities until he and John Chinehopper, another chief, signed a peace treaty.

John Chinehopper was one of the chiefs of the Nanticokes at Chicacoan Creek. He was involved in the Winnasoccum event in 1742, and was held by the English authorities until he and John Coursey signed a peace treaty.

Note: Four Nanticoke leaders approached the authorities in 1744. Although Simon Alsechqueck was the only one mentioned by name, it seems reasonable to assume that the other three were Captain John, John Coursey, and John Chinehopper. It was at this time that most of the Nanticokes abandoned their reservations and migrated to Pennsylvania. The peace treaty signed in 1742 stipulated that the tribe could no longer elect an emperor.

Peter Prince seems to have been a leader of the Nanticokes who remained in Dorchester County after the majority left in 1744. He died before June 1758.

Peter Monk was identified as a Nanticoke in 1742, and testified against the Nanticokes and Broad Creek Indians. He was appointed to be the “Emperor of the Nanticoke Indians” by Governor Horatio Sharpe on June 3, 1758, following the death of Peter Prince. He was said by some to be a direct descendant of “Annotoughcan” (see above), but the following year Mary M. Cratcher testified that Monk was “a Descendent from the Indian River Indians in Worcester County, and no ways allied to the Nanticoke Indians as I have been Informed by the old Nanticoke Indians…” Apparently, Monk was replaced by George Pocatehouse.

George Pocatehouse or Pocatous was said to have been “a Descendant from the family of old Panquash,” and seems to have been appointed Emperor of the Nanticoke Indians in 1759 due to a controversy concerning the eligibility of his predecessor, Peter Monk.

– Chris Slavens

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38th Annual Nanticoke Indian Powwow, Sept. 12-13

One of the most interesting annual events on Delmarva will be held this weekend, as the Nanticoke Indian Association welcomes members of of more than forty tribes, as well as the general public, to Oak Orchard for the 30th Annual Nanticoke Indian Powwow, a two-day event featuring dancing, drumming, singing, food, and crafts.

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Prior to the current succession of annual powwows, a number of similar events were held on and off throughout the 20th century, beginning in the 1920s. The association itself was organized in 1921 and incorporated the following year in an effort to preserve the identity and heritage of the multiracial descendants of several peninsula Indian tribes who had settled on the north side of Indian River at an unknown date (but prior to the 1850s), during an era when they were legally and socially classified as Negros and mulattoes, and discriminated against. Although the organization took the name Nanticoke, its members are believed to be descended primarily from a band of Assateague refugees which settled south of present-day Millsboro around 1700, as well as the dwindling remnants of other local tribes, which intermingled with each other as well as white settlers following the tribes’ decline in the 1740s. The degree to which they intermingled with blacks is somewhat controversial, and is complicated by the fact that generations of local Indians were called black whether they had black ancestors or not.

I plan to post a couple of short pieces about the historical Nanticokes and so-called Indian River Indians this week. Previous articles which may be of interest include The Nanticokes’ Last Stand, which tells the fascinating story of an unsuccessful intertribal plot to attack and expel the English, as well as this somewhat technical, speculative piece about the Indian River surname Sockum and its probable connection to the Nanticokes of Broad Creek.

– Chris Slavens

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